Rules & Code of Conduct

Cycle, Scoot and Ride Considerately

Our paths and roads are shared spaces. We should consider the safety of our fellow travellers, no matter whether we drive, walk, cycle or ride active mobility devices.

LTA’s vision for a car-lite nation is not only about providing the amenities to support walking, cycling and riding, but also building a culture of courtesy and respect for fellow commuters. 

Active Mobility Act (AMA)

The Active Mobility Act (AMA) came into force on May 2018, providing a set of rules and code of conduct to enable safer sharing of public paths among various users. Active mobility devices governed under the AMA include:

  • Bicycles
  • Power-Assisted Bicycles (PAB)
  • Personal Mobility Devices (PMDs): Kick-scooters, electric scooters, hoverboards, unicycles, etc.
  • Personal Mobility Aids (PMAs): Wheelchairs, motorised wheelchairs or mobility scooters which are designed to carry an individual who is unable to walk or has walking difficulties.

The AMA also provides LTA with legislative and enforcement powers to regulate the sale of PMDs, PABs and PMAs

Know where you can ride and the speed limits to observe for the safety of yourself and others. You may face penalties if caught speeding or riding your device on the wrong path or road.

Speed limit for shared paths

Shared paths include dedicated cycling paths and Park Connector Networks (PCNs). These paths can be easily identified by markings on the ground, such as a cyclist logo or PCN logo. Shared paths have a speed limit of 25km/h, and can be used by cyclists and users of PMDs, PABs and PMAs.

Speed limit on footpaths

In comparison, footpaths do not have any markings and are generally grey in colour. The speed limit for footpaths is 10km/h. PAB riders are not allowed to ride on footpaths.

Speed limit on roads

Only cyclists and PAB riders are allowed to ride on roads. Under the AMA, it is mandatory for cyclists and PAB riders to wear a helmet when riding on roads.

1All e-scooters and PABs must be registered with LTA. 

If you are using a bicycle, power-assisted bicycle (PAB) or personal mobility device (PMD), ensure your device meets the following device criteria before riding them on public paths:

Guidelines on PABs and PMDs

You may face penalties if caught riding a device that does not meet these criteria on public paths.

UL2272 fire safety standard for motorised personal mobility devices

The UL2272 fire safety standard improves the safety against fire and electrical hazards significantly. Motorised personal mobility devices (PMDs) that are certified to the UL2272 standard have to pass a stringent set of tests conducted by accredited testing centres under extreme physical conditions. 

If you own a non-UL2272 certified motorised PMD, you are strongly encouraged to switch to a model that is certified to the UL2272 standard as soon as possible, for the safety of yourself and those around you. 

From 1 July 2020, all non-UL2272 certified motorised PMDs will be disallowed on public paths. Non-UL2272 certified e-scooters that have been registered with LTA will therefore be automatically de-registered on that date.

A mandatory inspection regime for registered e-scooters will be introduced from 1 April 2020, and all e-scooters which were earlier registered and self-declared UL2272-certified will be scheduled for inspections. All new e-scooters will also have to pass inspections for UL2272 certification and width, weight, and device speed before they can be registered with LTA. 

Non-UL2272 certified PMDs pose a fire risk and all non-UL2272 devices should be properly and safely disposed of. From 23 September 2019 to 31 March 2020, users and owners of non-UL2272 devices will be able to dispose of their devices at designated disposal points set up by LTA-appointed e-waste recyclers (PDF, 313kb) across HDB estates or at LTA’s Sin Ming Office, at no cost. For more information, click here.

Why is the adoption of a device safety standard necessary?

The number of fires caused by motorised PMDs have increased in the past few years, with more than 90 fire incidents involving PMDs since 2016. As PMDs only started gaining popularity in recent years, many of the motorised PMDs used do not conform to any reliable safety standards. The adoption of a safety device standard is therefore necessary to ensure the safe use of such devices.

LTA carefully studied the safety standards available and determined that the UL2272 standard is most suitable for the common types of motorised PMDs used in Singapore, such as e-scooters, self-balancing hoverboards and electric unicycles.

Incidents of PMD-related fires over the last few years (photos credit from Singapore Civil Defence Force's Facebook)

Why was UL2272 chosen over other standards?

It is often difficult to determine the exact cause of the fires due to the extent of fire damage to the PMDs involved. However, based on literature reviews and consultations with the Singapore Civil Defence Force (SCDF), PMD fires may be caused by an electrical anomaly to the electrical circuitry or batteries, which could result from various factors, but not limited to, physical damage to the device, overcharging of rechargeable batteries, use of an unsuitable charger/battery, or manufacturing defects.

UL2272 is assessed to be a suitable safety standard as it evaluates PMDs from a system-level perspective, which better anticipates the full spectrum of usage conditions of the entire PMD, instead of just assessing individual components of a device.

Getting a device certified for UL2272 requires passing a series of electrical, mechanical and environmental tests. Its testing parameters are based on several components like the electrical and mechanical factor for safety, as well as the impact of environmental factors such as exposure to water.

Evaluation tests for UL2272 can be broadly classified into 3 categories as follows:

1. Electrical Tests

Electrical tests typically cover a range of tests:

  • Short circuit
  • Over-charge
  • Over-discharge
  • Temperature
  • Dielectric voltage
  • Isolation resistance
  • Imbalanced charging

Image on the left: A device undergoing a 'temperature test' (photo credit: SGS Testing & Control Services)       

temperature test typically determines whether a device’s battery cells and critical components are able to withstand specific operating current, voltage and temperature limits during charging and discharging conditions, e.g. when the device is in use/operation.  


2. Mechanical Tests

Mechanical tests typically cover a range of tests:

  • Vibration
  • Shock
  • Crush
  • Drop
  • Mold stress release
  • Handle loading
  • Strain relief



Image on the left: A device undergoing a 'vibration test' (photo credit: TUV Rheinland)            

vibration test evaluates the device’s ability to withstand vibration that may occur during its anticipated use. Device would be subjected to vibration in each axis for a stipulated period of time depending on the number of samples submitted.


IPX4 test



Image on the left: A device undergoing an 'IPX4 test' (photo credit: SGS Testing & Control Services)

During an ‘IPX4 test’, water is sprayed on devices from all directions using a rotating sprinkler system for 10 minutes to simulate rain and splashing of water. Following the test, device will be placed under an observation period to ensure that there is no explosion, fire, rupture, electrolyte leakage and shock based on the stipulated testing parameters.

PMD models that have been awarded the UL2722 certification must also undergo regular factory inspections to verify that device production continues to comply with requirements under the UL2272 standard. Manufacturers who persistently do not demonstrate adherence to the standard and take subsequent actions to ensure that their production line adheres to the standard may have their certification cancelled.

NOTE: While the UL2272 fire and electrical safety standard greatly reduces the risks of fire, PMD users should always practice proper handling and safety tips to prevent PMD fires and avoid exposing devices to extreme conditions or stress.

View these frequently-asked questions (FAQs) for more information on UL2272 certified PMDs.

Own an e-scooter or a power-assisted bicycle (PAB)? Do note that there is mandatory registration for these devices.

Owners of e-scooters have to register their devices at before using them. From 1 July 2019, it is an offence to ride an unregistered e-scooter on public paths. 

Power-assisted bicycles (PABs) must be sealed with the LTA approval seal, registered and affixed with a registration plate. For details on how to register your PAB, visit


Every path user has a role to play to build a better path sharing culture. Cyclists and users of personal mobility devices should always look out for and give way to more vulnerable users on footpaths and shared paths to keep themselves and others safe. Go to the full list of rules under the Active Mobility Act for more information.

Rules on riding on public paths


  1. All users are also encouraged to follow this set of code of conduct to share public paths safely and harmoniously with others.
  2. Watch your speed and go slow around others.
  3. Check that your lights, brakes and tyres are in good working condition before setting off.
  4. Check the height of your handlebars and seat on the bicycle to ensure that you have full control of the device when coming to a sudden stop in an emergency.
  5. Keep both hands on the handlebars. Signal your attention to change course or make a turn ahead of time.
  6. Ride on shared paths and bicycle crossings when available.
  7. Keep a safe distance from other path users, especially when overtaking to avoid a collision.
  8. Avoid shining your lights onto the face of other path users.
  9. Keep left on paths unless overtaking.
  10. Slow down when approaching bus stops and/or intersections of public paths.
  11. Walk your device in crowded areas.
  12. Gently alerts others before overtaking.
  13. Always give way to pedestrians.
  14. Park your devices at designated parking places such as bicycle racks and yellow boxes. When parking your PMD, be sure to secure it to a bicycle bay to prevent it from being stolen. The Singapore Police Force has tips on how to securely lock your devices.



Road safety is a shared responsibility. Keep a firm grip on these on-road cycling rules if you use a bicycle or power-assisted bicycle (PAB) on roads. 

Rules on riding on roads

2Otherwise, cycling two abreast is allowed.
3Rear red reflectors can be used on bicycles and power-assisted bicycles (PABs). 


Cyclists and PAB riders are encouraged to adopt the following practices to safeguard themselves and share the roads safely with motorists.

  1.  Always ride as close as practicable to the left-hand edge of roads, and allow traffic to overtake you safely. Keep a straight course, do not weave through traffic and avoid sudden swerves. 
  2.  Always use bicycle lanes when available. 
  3.  Keep a safe distance behind moving vehicles. Do not hold on to the back or side of motor vehicles and maintain awareness of traffic when riding.
  4.  Do not squeeze between the kerb and a bus that has stopped at a bus stop, or a turning vehicle and a kerb.
  5.  Slow down and look out for other road users when approaching bends, junctions, bus stops and pedestrian crossings or when passing a parked car.
  6.  If the hill is too steep, get off and walk with the bicycle. Keep your cycling speed under control when riding on downhill roads.
  7.  Wear bright-coloured clothing to increase your visibility to other vehicles and pedestrians.
  8.  Plan ahead and pick the safest route, and keep out of heavy traffic as much as possible. 
  9.  Do not carry anything in your arms that may interfere with the proper control of your bicycle.
  10.  Check the height of your handlebars and seat on the bicycle to ensure that you have full control of the device.
  11.  Keep both hands on the handlebars. When signalling your intention to change course or make a turn, do so ahead of time and return your hand to the handlebars before you turn.

Read the full code of conduct for cycling on roads under the Highway Code.

Help keep our streets neat and free of obstruction by following these steps when you end your trip on a shared bicycle.

  1.  Park your shared bicycle at designated parking zones such as yellow boxes and bicycle racks. To find designated parking zones nearest to your location, use your bicycle sharing app.
Designated bicycle parking spaces
  1.  Look out for the QR code located near the parking area and scan it to end your trip.
Users are to scan the QR code at the end of their ride

You may be charged an additional $5 fee by the bicycle sharing company for failing to park properly and scan the QR-code. After 3 failures, you will face a one-month ban from using all shared bicycle services. The ban period will increase with every subsequent ban. For more details on the user ban process, read this guide (PDF, 261kb).

The Active Mobility Advisory Panel commissioned in July 2015, is led by Dr Muhammad Faisal Ibrahim, and comprises representatives from key stakeholder groups including seniors, youths, cyclists, users of PMDs, motorists and grassroots leaders. On 17 March 2016, the Panel recommended a set of rules and code of conduct for cycling and use of PMDs which were accepted in full by the Government and incorporated into the Active Mobility Act.

The Panel commenced a second review with a focus on improving safety on public paths. The Government accepted the Panel’s recommendations on 4 September 2018 and have implemented them on 1 February 2019.

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