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Rules & Code of Conduct

Cycle, Scoot and Ride Considerately

Our paths and roads are shared spaces. We should consider the safety of our fellow travellers, no matter whether we drive, walk, cycle or ride active mobility devices.

LTA’s vision for a car-lite nation is not only about providing the amenities to support walking, cycling and riding, but also building a culture of courtesy and respect for fellow commuters. 

Active Mobility Act (AMA)

The Active Mobility Act (AMA) came into force on May 2018, providing a set of rules and code of conduct to enable safer sharing of public paths among various users. If you fail to adhere to the rules, you may face prosecutorial action by the Authority. Notices to Attend Court (PDF, 52kB) may also be issued should you commit an offence under the Active Mobility Act.  

Active mobility devices governed under the AMA include:

  • Bicycles
  • Power-Assisted Bicycles (PAB)
  • Motorised and Non-motorised Personal Mobility Devices (PMDs): Kick-scooters, electric scooters, hoverboards, unicycles, etc.
  • Personal Mobility Aids (PMAs): Wheelchairs, motorised wheelchairs or mobility scooters which are designed to carry an individual who is unable to walk or has walking difficulties.

The AMA also provides LTA with legislative and enforcement powers to regulate the sale of PMDs, PABs and PMAs

Know where you can ride and the speed limits to observe for the safety of yourself and others. You may face penalties if caught speeding or riding your device on the wrong path or road.


Cycling Paths and Park Connectors can be easily identified by markings on the ground (see examples below). These paths have a speed limit of 25km/h, and can be used by cyclists and users of PMDs, PABs and PMAs.

Types of cycling paths
Speed limit on footpaths

In comparison, footpaths do not have any ‘Cyclist’ or ‘PCN’ logos. The speed limit for footpaths is 10km/h. The riding of PABs and motorised PMDs are not allowed on footpaths (PDF, 537kb). Bicycles, PMAs and non-motorised PMDs, such as manual kick-scooters, can be used on footpaths. 

Speed limit on roads

Only cyclists and PAB riders are allowed to ride on roads, except for expressways and road tunnels. Under the Road Traffic Act, it is mandatory for cyclists and PAB riders to wear a helmet when riding on roads.

1All e-scooters and PABs must be registered with LTA. To find out more about the registration process, visit onemotoring.lta.gov.sg 

From 28 June 2021, all importers of  PABs and motorised PMDs are required to obtain approval from LTA before importing these devices into Singapore. Refer to the Import Control Regime for PABs and Motorised PMDs for more information.

If you are using a bicycle, power-assisted bicycle (PAB) or personal mobility device (PMD), ensure your device meets the following device criteria before riding them on public paths:

Guidelines on PABs and PMDs

Handbrake requirement for bicycles

From 1 September 2021, all bicycles meant for use on public paths and roads are to be equipped with at least one functioning handbrake. The handbrake must be affixed at the front of the bicycle and easily accessible to the cyclist when riding the bicycle. Penalties for first offence include a fine of up to $10,000 and/or a jail term of up to 6 months.

UL2272 fire safety standard for motorised personal mobility devices

The UL2272 fire safety standard improves the safety against fire and electrical hazards significantly. Motorised personal mobility devices (PMDs) that are certified to the UL2272 standard have to pass a stringent set of tests conducted by accredited testing centres under extreme physical conditions. Users who modify a UL2272-certified PMD may render its certificate invalid, posing a fire risk. 

From 1 July 2020, only UL2272 motorised PMDs (PDF, 1.9MB) are allowed on cycling paths. Non-UL2272 e-scooters that have been registered with LTA have been automatically de-registered on that date. Non-UL2272 and modified PMDs are a fire risk, and should be properly and safely disposed of. LTA will continue to maintain records of non-UL2272 PMDs and may contact the owners for further action in future should the need arises. For more details on where to dispose your PMDs, please click here

A mandatory inspection regime for registered e-scooters has been introduced from 3 April 2020, and all e-scooters which were earlier registered and self-declared UL2272-certified will be scheduled for inspections (please note these inspections will resume from 4 June 2020 onwards). All new e-scooters will also have to pass inspections for UL2272 certification and width, weight, and device speed before they can be registered with LTA. 

You may face penalties if caught riding a device that does not meet these criteria on public paths.

Why is the adoption of a device safety standard necessary?

The number of fires caused by motorised PMDs have increased in the past few years, with more than 90 fire incidents involving PMDs since 2016. As PMDs only started gaining popularity in recent years, many of the motorised PMDs used do not conform to any reliable safety standards. The adoption of a safety device standard is therefore necessary to ensure the safe use of such devices.

LTA carefully studied the safety standards available and determined that the UL2272 standard is most suitable for the common types of motorised PMDs used in Singapore, such as e-scooters, self-balancing hoverboards and electric unicycles.

Incidents of PMD-related fires over the last few years (photos credit from Singapore Civil Defence Force's Facebook)

Why was UL2272 chosen over other standards?

It is often difficult to determine the exact cause of the fires due to the extent of fire damage to the PMDs involved. However, based on literature reviews and consultations with the Singapore Civil Defence Force (SCDF), PMD fires may be caused by an electrical anomaly to the electrical circuitry or batteries, which could result from various factors, but not limited to, physical damage to the device, overcharging of rechargeable batteries, use of an unsuitable charger/battery, or manufacturing defects.

UL2272 is assessed to be a suitable safety standard as it evaluates PMDs from a system-level perspective, which better anticipates the full spectrum of usage conditions of the entire PMD, instead of just assessing individual components of a device.

Getting a device certified for UL2272 requires passing a series of electrical, mechanical and environmental tests. Its testing parameters are based on several components like the electrical and mechanical factor for safety, as well as the impact of environmental factors such as exposure to water.

Evaluation tests for UL2272 can be broadly classified into 3 categories as follows:

1. Electrical Tests

Electrical tests typically cover a range of tests:

  • Short circuit
  • Over-charge
  • Over-discharge
  • Temperature
  • Dielectric voltage
  • Isolation resistance
  • Imbalanced charging
electrical test

A temperature test typically determines whether a device’s battery cells and critical components are able to withstand specific operating current, voltage and temperature limits during charging and discharging conditions, e.g. when the device is in use/operation. 

Image on the left: A device undergoing a 'temperature test' (photo credit: SGS Testing & Control Services)


2. Mechanical Tests

Mechanical tests typically cover a range of tests:

  • Vibration
  • Shock
  • Crush
  • Drop
  • Mold stress release
  • Handle loading
  • Strain relief
mechanical test

A vibration test evaluates the device’s ability to withstand vibration that may occur during its anticipated use. Device would be subjected to vibration in each axis for a stipulated period of time depending on the number of samples submitted.

Image on the left: A device undergoing a 'vibration test' (photo credit: TUV Rheinland) 

environmental test

During an ‘IPX4 test’, water is sprayed on devices from all directions using a rotating sprinkler system for 10 minutes to simulate rain and splashing of water. Following the test, device will be placed under an observation period to ensure that there is no explosion, fire, rupture, electrolyte leakage and shock based on the stipulated testing parameters.

Image on the left: A device undergoing an 'IPX4 test' (photo credit: SGS Testing & Control Services)

PMD models that have been awarded the UL2722 certification must also undergo regular factory inspections to verify that device production continues to comply with requirements under the UL2272 standard. Manufacturers who persistently do not demonstrate adherence to the standard and take subsequent actions to ensure that their production line adheres to the standard may have their certification cancelled.

NOTE: While the UL2272 fire and electrical safety standard greatly reduces the risks of fire, PMD users should always practice proper handling and safety tips to prevent PMD fires and avoid exposing devices to extreme conditions or stress.

View these frequently-asked questions (FAQs) (PDF, 219kB) for more information on UL2272 certified PMDs.

Whether you are walking, cycling or riding a PMD, everyone has a role to play to build a safer and more gracious path sharing culture. 

Rules for cycling and riding PMDs

Familiarise yourself with the rules under the Active Mobility Act before you ride. 

Rules on riding on paths

5. Stop and look out for incoming traffic before riding across the road

6. Dismount and walk your device when you see a "No Riding" sign.

7. Stop, offer help, exchange particulars, and make a police report if you are involved in an accident.

8. Those under 16 years of age cannot ride PABs on cycling paths even if supervised by an adult.

9. Those under 16 years of age cannot be carried as a passenger on a PAB on cycling paths.

From 1 August 2020, individuals under the age of 16 are not allowed to ride e-scooters, unless supervised by an adult who is at least 21 years old. If you intend to supervise an individual below the age of 16 to ride an e-scooter, please familiarise yourself with the guidelines of a supervisor (PDF,177kB)

Guidelines for walking, cycling and riding your PMDs

Being gracious keeps you and others safe. If you ride a bicycle or PMD, always give way to more vulnerable users on the paths. If you are walking, remain alert and keep to footpaths. 

Cyclists and PMD riders

  1. Always give way to pedestrians.
  2. Watch your speed and go slow around others.
  3. Slow down when approaching bus stops and/or intersections of public paths.
  4. Walk your device in crowded areas.
  5. Gently alert others before overtaking. 
  6. Keep left on paths unless overtaking. 
  7. Ride on cycling paths and bicycle crossings when available.
  8. Keep a safe distance from other path users, especially when overtaking to avoid a collision.
  9. Avoid shining your lights onto the face of other path users. 
  10. Check that your lights, brakes and tyres are in good working condition before setting off.
  11. Check the height of your handlebars and seat on the bicycle to ensure that you have full control of the device when coming to a sudden stop in an emergency.
  12. Keep both hands on the handlebars. Signal your intention to change course or make a turn ahead of time.
  13. Park your devices at designated parking places such as bicycle racks and yellow boxes. Be sure to securely lock your devices (PDF, 388kB) to prevent it from being stolen.


  1. Keep left unless overtaking.
  2. Keep to footpaths and pedestrian crossings.
  3. Stay alert when on public paths. Using a mobile phone or listening to music could prevent you from detecting danger or obstacles.

Read the full code of conduct for public path users (PDF, 93kB) under the Active Mobility Act.


Rules for cycling 

Road safety is a shared responsibility. Keep a firm grip on these on-road cycling rules if you use a bicycle or power-assisted bicycle (PAB) on roads. 

  1. Obey all traffic signals and travel in the same direction as the flow of traffic. 
  2. Wear a helmet when cycling on roads.
  3. Cycle in a single file on single-lane roads and during bus lane operational hours2.
  4. Switch on front white and rear red light3 in the dark.
  5. Do not use a mobile communication device while riding. 
  6. Those under 16 years of age may not ride PABs on roads. 
  7. Those under 16 years of age may not be carried as a passenger on PABs on roads. 
  8. Do not cycle on expressways and in road tunnels

2Otherwise, cycling two abreast is allowed.
3Rear red reflectors can be used on bicycles and power-assisted bicycles (PABs). 

Guidelines for cycling

Cyclists and PAB riders are encouraged to adopt the following practices to safeguard themselves and share the roads safely with motorists.

  1. Always ride as close as practicable to the left-hand edge of roads, and allow traffic to overtake you safely. Keep a straight course, do not weave through traffic and avoid sudden swerves. 
  2. Always use bicycle lanes when available. 
  3. Keep a safe distance behind moving vehicles. Do not hold on to the back or side of motor vehicles and maintain awareness of traffic when riding.
  4. Do not squeeze between the kerb and a bus that has stopped at a bus stop, or a turning vehicle and a kerb.
  5. Slow down and look out for other road users when approaching bends, junctions, bus stops and pedestrian crossings or when passing a parked car.
  6. If the hill is too steep, get off and walk with the bicycle. Keep your cycling speed under control when riding on downhill roads.
  7. Wear bright-coloured clothing to increase your visibility to other vehicles and pedestrians.
  8. Plan ahead and pick the safest route, and keep out of heavy traffic as much as possible. 
  9. Do not carry anything in your arms that may interfere with the proper control of your bicycle.
  10. Check the height of your handlebars and seat on the bicycle to ensure that you have full control of the device.
  11. Keep both hands on the handlebars. When signalling your intention to change course or make a turn, do so ahead of time and return your hand to the handlebars before you turn.

Read the full code of conduct for cycling on roads under the Highway Code.

Own an e-scooter or a power-assisted bicycle (PAB)? Do note that there is mandatory registration for these devices.

From April 2020, do check that any new e-scooters you purchase is already registered with LTA by the retailer. Retailers are required to send all e-scooters to be inspected and certified at an LTA designated E-scooter Inspection Centre before they can be advertised, displayed and/or sold for use on cycling paths (including letting for hire). It is an offence to ride an unregistered e-scooter on cycling paths. 

Power-assisted bicycles (PABs) must be sealed with the LTA approval seal, registered and affixed with a rear registration number plate. View this list (PDF, 1.78MB) to find out the type-approved PAB models. For details on how to register your PAB, visit onemotoring.lta.gov.sg/PAB.

The e-scooter inspection regime was introduced in April 2020 to ensure that e-scooters comply with the device criteria for use on public paths.  

There are two categories of inspection under the e-scooter inspection regime:

1) Verification Inspection of e-scooters registered before April 2020 and declared to be compliant with the device criteria of weight, width, speed and UL2272 certification;

2) Registration Inspection for new e-scooters to be sold or let for hire by retailers/companies. From April 2020, only new e-scooters meant for sale or let for hire by retailers/companies are allowed to be registered with LTA after passing Registration Inspection.


For Existing Registered E-Scooters

LTA will schedule mandatory inspections for e-scooters registered before 1 April 2020 and were declared as compliant to the device criteria of no more than 20kg, 70cm and 25km/h device speed, as well as UL2272-certified. This first-time inspection will be at no cost to these owners. Owners of these devices will receive a notice from LTA informing them to bring their devices in for inspection at any of the nine E-scooter Inspection Centres (EICs) island-wide. Click here (PDF, 114kB) to see a list of the locations of the inspection centres.

Those who fail to send their devices for inspection by the deadline stated in the notice could have their devices deregistered and face a fine of up to $1,000 and/or jailed up to three months, if convicted.

Please ensure that your e-scooter registration mark is affixed at the front or at the sides of your e-scooter stem, is upright, intact, not obscured and not void/damaged before presenting for inspection. E-scooters with missing/invalid registration mark will be barred from inspection. Owners who require a replacement of the registration mark for their e-scooter may wish to submit a request via www.lta.gov.sg/feedback with more details1 and schedule an appointment with LTA for the registration mark. Do note that a fee of $20.00 for the replacement of the registration mark will be chargeable, and the registration number of the e-scooter will be changed. 

Owners who require more time to present their e-scooter(s) for inspection may wish to write in to LTA_escooter_insp@lta.gov.sg with more details.

E-scooters that do not pass the mandatory inspection due to non-compliance with the weight, width, speed or UL2272 certification requirement will be deregistered by LTA. Owners who wish to request for a re-inspection of their e-scooter(s) may write in to LTA_escooter_insp@lta.gov.sg after completing the necessary adjustments to ensure compliance with LTA's device requirements. 


For New E-scooters to be Registered On or After 1 April 2020

From April 2020, all new e-scooters will be required to pass through inspection at one of the nine EICs before they can be registered for use on cycling paths. Retailers/businesses will only be able to display, advertise, sell or let for hire e-scooters that are inspected and certified.

It is an offence to ride an unregistered e-scooter on cycling path. First-time offenders can be subject to a fine of $2,000 and/or imprisonment of up to three months.

It is also an offence to use non-compliant e-scooters on public paths and first-time offenders may face a fine $10,000 and/or imprisonment of up to six months.

For more information on inspection and registration of new device(s), please refer to the comprehensive guide here.


1 If your registration mark is damaged, please provide a photograph of the damaged registration mark to LTA for assessment, the registered owner's full name and the last 4 characters of the Singapore NRIC/Employment Immigration Pass Card (e.g. 321A).

If your registration mark is missing, please make a police report on the loss of your registration mark first, followed by providing LTA with the e-scooter registration number, the registered owner's full name and the last 4 characters of the Singapore NRIC/Employment Immigration Pass Card (e.g. 321A).


From 30 June 2021, riders of e-scooters and Power-Assisted Bicycles (PABs) can register for the theory test on Singapore Polytechnic's Professional & Adult Continuing Education Academy (PACE)'s website:

a. To register for the e-scooter theory test, please click here.
b. To register for the PAB theory test, please click here.

The theory test familiarises riders of e-scooters and PABs with active mobility rules, code of conduct and safe riding practices.

Holders of driving licences are not exempted from taking the theory test as driving licences do not cover rules on paths, and navigating the roads as a PAB rider differs from a motorist.

From 1 January 2022, PAB and e-scooter riders will have to pass their respective mandatory theory test before they are able to ride on cycling paths and on roads (for PABs). We encourage riders to register and obtain the test certificates as soon as possible.


To help riders prepare for the test, the e-handbooks are available for download. 


Theory Test Format

There will be separate tests for e-scooter and PAB riders. These tests are available in four languages (English, Chinese, Malay and Tamil). The tests will be conducted online and comprise multiple-choice questions (MCQ) only. For some sample test questions, please click here (PDF, 32kB).

More details of the tests format can be found below:


E-scooter Theory Test

PAB Theory Test

Total number of MCQs



Number of MCQs needed to be answered correctly to pass (i.e. 80%)



Test duration

30 minutes

40 minutes


Theory Test Fees

a. The discounted fee period has been extended till 31 December 2021. Those who register for the test from 30 June to 31 December 2021 will enjoy a discounted fee of $5.35 (including GST) per test, with a free reattempt should they fail in their first try.

b. Riders who register to take the theory test from 1 January 2022 will pay $10.70 (including GST) per test attempt.

You may refer to the guide (PDF, 1.8MB) on the registration and test taking process. 

Free MTT Preparatory Workshop

The National Delivery Champions Association (NDCA) is conducting free workshops to coach delivery riders in preparation for the Mandatory Theory Test (Power-Assisted Bicycles/E-bikes only). Please refer to the poster (PDF, 0.3MB) for more information.

To register your interest for the workshop, please click here.

Help keep our streets neat and free of obstruction by following these steps when you end your trip on a shared bicycle.

  1.  Park your shared bicycle at designated parking zones such as yellow boxes and bicycle racks. To find designated parking zones nearest to your location, use your bicycle sharing app.
Designated bicycle parking spaces
  1.  Look out for the QR code located near the parking area and scan it to end your trip.
Users are to scan the QR code at the end of their ride

You may be charged an additional $5 fee by the bicycle sharing company for failing to park properly and scan the QR-code. After 3 failures, you will face a one-month ban from using all shared bicycle services. The ban period will increase with every subsequent ban. For more details on the user ban process, read this guide (PDF, 261kB).

Third-party liability insurance products for non-commercial riders

LTA strongly encourages non-commercial riders to purchase active mobility insurance to protect yourself from personal accident expenses and third-party injury claims. The following are some products1 (PDF,459kB) available on the market: 

  • AA Personal Mobility Plus (AAS Insurance Agency Pte Ltd, underwritten by Liberty Insurance Pte Ltd)
  • AXA Personal Mobility Protect (AXA Insurance, sold exclusively by AXA@POST)
  • ePROTECT personal mobility (EtiQa)
  • Personal Mobility Guard (NTUC Income) 

1This list is not meant to be exhaustive nor imply endorsement or recommendation of any of these products or companies. You should make your own assesment on the product that best meet your needs. 

Mandatory third-party liability insurance requirements for businesses

For information on active mobility insurance for businesses and commercial riders, please refer to the guide here

The Active Mobility Advisory Panel commissioned in July 2015, is led by Minister of State Associate Professor Dr Muhammad Faishal Ibrahim, and comprises representatives from key stakeholder groups including seniors, youths, cyclists, users of PMAs, motorists and grassroots leaders. 

The Panel conducts regular review of active mobility regulations to enhance path safety. You can view AMAP’s past reports below: 

The devices listed in this notification (PDF, 106kB) have been impounded by the Land Transport Authority. 

For enquiries/requests:

If we do not receive any request within 14 days after publishing the notification, in accordance with the law, we will prepare for the disposal of these devices.

We will then proceed to dispose of the devices in this Gazette (PDF, 172kB) 1 month after its publication. 

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